8. The limitations that are following experienced in the research.

This goal was achieved by the means of a focus team, some relevant concerns had been created to generally access the knowledge about cash administration in general populace plus the part it can play in their financial situation. This was done via available finished questions to provide the participant capability to get feedback and reveal in as a type of complex descriptions that are textual access how individuals experience the given research problem. Test right here additionally included pupils, unemployed individuals, in your free time employees, full time employees and one-man shop people with various intercourse and age groups.

Objective 7: recommend a New Theory on Money Management in crisis.

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Thus in above mentioned way the goals had been addressed and information are going to be collected and analyzed plus the objective that is last recommend a New Theory on Money Management in crisis to emerged because of the achievement associated with the past research goals.

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3320 terms (13 pages) Essay

25th May 2018 Biology guide this

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Tetrodotoxin is alkaloid based toxins that are aquatic. These toxins are very powerful non-proteinaceous toxins as well as the marine that is best-known toxins. Diodon hystrix (porcupine fish) had been gathered from Chennai costal area and dissected under sterile conditions to obtain: liver, epidermis, gonads, intestine, eyes and renal. 20g of each organ was macerated in 200ml of Methanol:Acetic Acid [99:1]. The filtrate will be condensed in Rota-Vaccum evaporator to have crude extract. The main focus of this scholarly research is to verify the existence of TTX (Tetrodotoxin) in six various organs of Diodon hystrix. Analytical techniques utilized had been GC-MS and UV spectroscopy. Additionally, genotoxicity associated with the crude extract were analysed using leukocyte that is human and SCE assay using onion root tips. The results recommend the existence of TTX in major epidermis, liver and intestine and that, the organ extract does not have any genotoxic impact but is capable of increasing the sis chromatid exchange.

Key phrases: TTX, Diodon hystrix, genotoxicity, root tip assay.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is definitely a effective alkaloid neurotoxin that is non-proteinacious in nature. TTX can withstand very high temperature and is water dissolvable it is affected by extreme pH conditions, in other words., above 8.5 and below 3.0 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. These properties make it a toxin that is dangerous to interact best along with its environment [1, 2, 5]. It is present in both aquatic along with terrestrial organisms and research reports have proven that it is synthesized by symbiotic microorganisms, germs precisely, contained in the gut, initially obtained through the food chain or found on the epidermis associated with the pets but its biosynthesis path is nevertheless unknown [ 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8]. TTX will act as an ion pore blocker, binding

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to web site 1 salt channel receptor associated with the axon membrane layer thus inhibiting the influx of salt ions and for that reason causing the obstruction of action potentials [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].2009 ap biology essay TTX is ten thousand times poisonous than cyanide and something of the very poisons that are fatal world. The LD50 is more or less 0.2μg whenever inserted in mice [2, 5]. Having said that, along with the characteristics that are lethal medical studies and research studies have actually demonstrated that TTX has remarkable healing properties being an analgesic in cancer tumors therapy procedure [2].

Puffer fish belonging to the purchase Tetraodontiformes, was in fact identified to be the cause of numerous mortalities due to food poisoning as a total consequence of TTX intoxication. In lots of nations such as Japan and Asia, puffer seafood is deemed a meals delicacy provided that it’s prepared by an authorized and well skilled cook but some cases of poisoning prevail[1, still 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. It’s been stated that only a extremely dose that is low of

in bloodstream is sufficient for the impact that is immediate the host [5]. Research reports have figured the most toxic organs associated with the fish that is puffer the liver followed by the intestine and then the skin and ovary. In addition to that, TTX is also present in low concentration in other organs like the optical eyes and muscles [3, 5, 8, 10].

The study is focused on Diodon hystrix which is a sort of puffer seafood belonging to the course Diodontidae and it is also known as Porcupinefish due to the razor- sharp needle-like structures addressing its body that is entire as protection procedure against predators. Presence of TTX is reported in Diodon hystrix all over the world [2, 4, 5] but studies with this animal through the ocean associated with the eastern coast of Asia that is the Bay of Bengal is yet become reported. The aim of this scientific studies are to recognize TTX in the crude extract from Diodon hystrix obtained from Chennai Coastal line and to investigate the Genotoxicity associated with the crude extract from particular organs using leukocyte that is human and onion root recommendations.

The fish that is puffer gathered through the seaside lines of marina coastline, Chennai in very early July 2014. The recognition associated with the fish that is puffer carried out by artistic contrast with an online seafood database –www.fishbase.org. The database parameters had been set appropriately to test collection web site plus the feasible types available in Bay-of-Bengal area because of the matching morphology had been just two types of Diodon sp.. Out of which Diodon hystrix had the match that is closest, based on the epidermis coloration pattern.

The gathered puffer fish had been dissected and organs that are visceral liver, intestine, renal, attention, and epidermis had been eliminated and organs had been weighed. The isolation for the tetrodotoxin[3] include through the examples 10 grms of organs had been taken then suspended in 100ml of three amount of 1% acetic acid in methanol without damaging the cells then your entire materials had been in the Refrigerator for 24 hours at a sterile condition, being an incubation duration In the next action the muscle had been macerated in a mortar and pestle carefully, in the event that cells have dried out include needed amount of the chilled ethanol if required. Then your slurry had been filtered using whatman no. 1 filter paper. Then your solutions that are filtrate centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4 level Celsius. Then the supernatant had been separated and lastly the samples had been focused by utilizing lyophilisation to obtain extracts that are crude our purpose of research

To recognize the existence of alkaloids [10] to 2mg of crude extracts 5ml of distilled water had been added then 2M hydrochloric acid was added until an acid reaction does occur. To this 1 ml of Dragendorff’s reagent was added. Development of orange or orange precipitate that is red the existence of alkaloids

Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS)[8][11][12]forms a combination that is effective Chemical analysis. GC-MS analysis were a method that is indirect detect TTX in a crude extract,

which was difficult to cleanse in other analysis that is advanced. In this method, we dissolved TTX and its particular derivatives in 2 ml of 3 M NaOH and heated in a water that is boiling for 30 min. The alkaline solution of decomposed compounds was adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1N HCl and the resulting mixture was chromatographed on a Sep- Pak C18 cartridge (Waters) after cooling to room temperature. After washing with H2O first and then 10% MeOH, 100% MeOH small fraction had been evaporated and collected to dryness in vacuo. A mixture of N, O-bis acetamide, trimethylchlorosilane and pyridine (2: 1: 1) was added to generate trimethylsilyl (TMS) ‘‘C9-base’’ compounds to the resulting residue. The derivatives had been then put in a h . p . gas chromatograph (HP-5890-II) designed with a mass spectrometer (AutoSpec, Micromass Inc., UK). A column (φ 0.25 mm × 250 cm) of UB-5 was utilized, plus the line heat is increased from 180 to 250°C during the price of 5 or 8°C/min. The movement price of inlet helium provider gas had been maintained at 20 ml/min. The voltage that is ionizing generally speaking maintained at 70 eV because of the ion supply heat at 200°C. Scanning had been performed in the mass array of m/z 40–600 at 3s periods. The ion that is total (TIC) plus the fragment ion chromatogram (FIC) had been selectively monitored.

In UV spectroscopy, TTX was generally speaking based on irradiating a crude toxin with UV light [11][12]. A small amount of examples had been dissolved in 2 ml of 2 M NaOH and heated in a water that is boiling for 45 min. After cooling to space heat, examples had been analyzed in UV range and outcomes had been observed in the range 270nm to 280nm.

Chromosome preparations had been acquired from PHA-stimulated blood lymphocytes[14][15] that is peripheral. To the tubes that are fresh of Hikaryo XL RPMI ready-mix news and 0.5ml of heparinized bloodstream (50drops) had been added plus the articles had been blended gently by shaking. Then Incubated for 72 hours in standing place in an incubator. The culture was treated with TTX (0.5ug/ml) (10ul/ 5ml of culture) and again kept it in incubator for another 24 hours at the end of 48th hour of incubation. The culture was thoroughly washed by centrifuging the content at 1500rpm for 5 minutes, discard the supernatant and add 5ml of RPMI 1640 medium at the end of 24th hour incubation. To your content 60 microliter of colchicine was added and pipes had been held for 20 minutes incubation in incubator at 37oC and the content was centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 minutes after incubation. The supernatant was eliminated and 6ml of pre-warmed 0.075M solution that is hypotonic added. This content was blended using a Pasteur pipette and incubated at 37 oC in incubator for 6 minutes. After incubation the tube that is content centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 minutes. The supernatant was discarded and 6ml of Carnoy’s fixative was mixed and added vigorously. After fixation the content was held in space heat for 1-2 hours. The content was once again centrifuged at 1500 supernatant and rpm was eliminated and also this action was proceeded until pellet becomes white. For the planning of slides the brand new slides had been very first refrigerated and button that is then cell had been fallen on the slides and dried immediately for a hot dish, and then was held in an incubator for appropriate drying. The slides had been then put in a coplin container containing Giemsa staining for 4 minutes and destained in a coplin container containing water that is distilled 1 moment. The slides had been dried out then seen under microscope for stained chromosome. . The slides had been then seen under 100X energy under oil immersion goal associated with the microscope to analyze the chromosome aberrations.

The onion root tips[1], 2-3 cm very long, had been wet in 100 µM 5-bromodeoxy uridine (BrdUrd) for almost 20 h followed by 1 hour therapy because of the crude extract After a brief clean, the origins had been permitted to develop for the next round in growing news. The remedies had been ended by washing the origins with distilled water and then 0.05% Colchicine had been added then incubated for 2.5 h. Origins were washed, fixed and excised in Carnoy’s fixative, for 1-3hrs and preserved at 4°C. The origins had been prepared cytology that is using for SCE analysis.. The origins had been then hydrolysed in 5 N HCI at 25°C for 92 min and stained with haematoxylin for at least 2hrs. The root[16] that is stained washed in distilled water, squashed in a fall of 45% acetic acid and tapped for metaphase chromosome separation under coverslips. Tap water settings had been included in the assay. The slides had been seen at 100X magnification in oil immersion light microscope that is using

Fig 1: Showing consequence of test after Dragendorff’s test

The alkaloids contained in the fish that is puffer precipitated being a complex formation by dragendorff’s reagent. Dragendorff’s test outcomes revealed very precipitation that is high skin and intestine, high precipitation in liver and very low precipitation or very little precipitation was observed in renal, gonads and attention.

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Characteristic top had been seen at retention time 8.33 and 8.66 in liver, intestine and epidermis after doing alkaline therapy and there is no peak that is characteristic in renal, eyes and gonads. The compound TTX present gets reduced to C9 base TMS (trimethysilyl) after boiling of samples which contain TTX in alkaline solution ( NaOH). It’s noteworthy that every top of chosen ion monitored at m/z = 376, 392 and 407 seems during the retention that is same in the Selected ion-monitored mass chromatogram associated with the TMS derivatives of alkali-hydrolyzed. From samples of liver, kidney and intestine, mass fragments of ion peaks was seen at ion M/z 376, 392 and 407, that are characteristic associated with the quinazoline skeleton (C9 base), which was almost comparable as those through the TMS-C9 Base derived authentic TTX

Fig 2: Showing GC-MS spectral range of the TMS derivatives of alkali-hydrolysed toxin from Diodon hystrix

In UV analysis technique peaks that are characteristic observed in all examples. Shoulder top was observed in liver, intestine and epidermis, decreasing and peaks that are inclining seen in renal, eyes and gonads. The UV range is analyzed for the attribute of absorptions, associated with C9-base shoulder that is.The had been seen at 276 nm indicates the formation of C-9 base that have been particular to TTX or associated substances.

 

Fig 3: Showing chart of UV-spectroscopy associated with the crude extract from different organs of Diodon hystrix, top at 276nm showing the existence of TTX.

Metaphase dishes had been acquired while observing under 100X magnification in oil immersion light microscope that is using. It’s been seen in all the examples that there have been no chromosomal aberration that is structural or chromosomal that is numerical were not seen. Out of this total outcome, it can be stated that the crude extract from Diodon hystrix has no clastogenic (breakage of chromosome) or aneugenic ( improvement in chromosomal quantity) effects.

Fig4(left): Showing metaphase dish from control leukocytes. Fig5(right): Showing metaphase dish from crude extract leukocytes.

The Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) assay is reported to be very delicate genotoxicity that is short-term because of its capability to identify genotoxins at low doses (Tucker et al.1993). It’s been seen that the crude extract from Skin and intestine SCE that is enhanced significantly the control even though the Liver, Eye, Gonads and Kidney have quite low effects. Therefore it is help with that the crude extract from epidermis and interfere that is intestine a whole lot because of the SCE and additional studies must be carried out.

Fig6(left) : Showing consequence of SCE in charge onion root tip. Fig7(right): Showing consequence of SCE in crude extract root tip.

Through the research, it can be stated that Diodon hystrix through the eastern region that is coastal of, observed to have accumulated TTX in its organs. Thus it can be toxic whenever ingested and even lethal to the predators. Nevertheless studies that are further be carried out with this seafood to confirm the existence of a homologue of TTX and obtain a purified test associated with the TTX.

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5246 terms (21 pages) Essay

first Jan 1970 Economics guide this

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Big Onion crop was introduced to Sri Lanka by the British in 1855 and cultivation that is commercial introduced by the Department of Agriculture through the 1950’s and over the past years, the crop performance was evaluated in lots of parts of the country and it was seen that big onions is grown economically during every Maha period in nearly all parts of the country.

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2. Nevertheless, at present the cultivation of big onion is restricted only to Matale, Anuradhapura, Puthalama, Pollonnaruwa, Mahawelli and Jaffna Districts. More than 50percent associated with the onion that is total in Sri Lanka is developed through the Matale District. [1] 

3. The Government strives to achieve a self stage that is sufficient the manufacturing of big onions since Sri Lanka spends a significant amount of cash outflow each year on the importation associated with the big onions. Meanwhile, in the past that is recent has been noticed that the top onion manufacturing is impacted in Sri Lanka and for that reason clients will also be paying a higher cost for the top onions. In specific the onion that is big in Dambulla area is decreasing in the last few years.

4. The Dambulla area plays a role that is important the top onion cultivation in Sri Lanka. The Government is paying less attention and help on promoting the onion that is big in Dambulla.

Consequently, it’s therefore occurred that the onion manufacturing in Dambulla has declined in the past that is recent a result of the government’s less support for this sector. Consequently, the main purpose of this research would be to market the onion that is big in the Dambulla area.

5. This scientific studies are carried out because of the after specific and objectives that are general.

a. The main objective that is general of research is to identify the main problems experienced in the onion cultivation associated with the Dambulla area.

6. The specific goal of this research would be to give the suggestion to improve the onion that is big in the Dambulla area and specific goals are the following.

a. To study the history that is recent of onion cultivation in Dambulla area and to compare the current situation associated with Big Onion cultivation.

b. To recognize the issues that are main in big onion cultivation in Dambulla.

c. To recognize the contributing that is critical.

d. To help make guidelines based on the findings.

2. The Matale District plays a role that is important the top onion cultivation in Sri Lanka in specific Dambulla provides big onions for the Sri Lankans’ usage. The big onion cultivation has been declining in the recent past due to the lack of support from the government sector.

3. The big onion cultivation in Dambulla will be non existence in the very near future as a result. Moreover, numerous farmers depend on the onion that is big as their livelihood in Dambulla. Hence, in the event that onion that is big in Dambulla is impacted numerous families will lose their earnings and it will affect the success of many families. Thus the lack of help through the federal government plus the consequent onion that is less are considered since the research issue for this research.

4. This research studies the stage that is declining of onion cultivation in Dambulla. The range covers just the Dambulla area of big onion farmers. Consequently, this extensive research is limited to the onion farmers associated with the Dambulla area.

7. This research studies the facets affecting the decrease associated with the onion that is big in Dambulla. Consequently, the reactions had been gathered through the onion that is local through the Dambulla area. Thus, 100 onion that is big had been considered as an example for this research since all farmers could never be available within the restricted time for this research. These farmers had been chosen in a basis that is random. Consequently, the simple sampling that is random was applied for picking a the test.

8. The limitations that are following experienced in the research.

a. Time is limited, to ensure in the time that is limited research needs to be completed due to this in-depth analysis can’t be used.

b. The researcher encountered limitation of resources.

c. The test was restricted simply to 100 farmers.

9. The onion that is big an important small crop consumed by numerous Sri Lankans and contains been projected that 34,000 metric tons of onion is brought in yearly and Sri Lanka spends around 300 million rupees on onion importation (Gunawardena, 2009). Moreover, it’s been additionally projected that 45,000 labour devices are employed in the onion production and cultivation yearly by Sri Lankans and for that reason, it increases earnings and work generation for several Sri Lankans. [2] 

10. Numerous nations global are becoming involved in the onion production that is big. In specific they’ve been; Belarus, Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, Asia, Pakistan etc (Research Institute for Vegetable plants, 2006).

11. According to Shanmugasundaram (2001) there are varieties of onion and it primarily includes the sweet, red, white, yellowish, brown and green etc.

Supply – Shanmugasundaram (2008)

12. Moreover, it’s been identified that the onion that is big brings a few relative advantages in comparison to along with other plants (Autko & Moisevich, 2006). Some of the advantages are given below.

a. Production can be obtained in a period that is short of.

b. Initial expenses such as; seeds expenses, fertilizer expenses are comparatively less.

c. It does not require a set cost.

d. Less technology the devices are sufficient.

ag e. Tall employability of handbook labourers.

f. Easy to find areas.

g. Less period that is storage.

13. The onion basically is divided into red onions and onions that are big each variety calls for various eco-agricultural conditions, labour, fertilizer, climate and climatic conditions, heat, etc.

14. The literary works implies various requirements for smooth growing associated with the onion production that is big. Some of the conditions recommended by Autko and Moisevich (2006) receive below.

a. Enhance of fertile soil levels in the area of plant root by 4-6 cm

b. Enhance of warming and aeration of soil, excluding over wetting in the amount of hefty precipitation

c. Loss of fertilizer price application by 30%

d. Loss of seed sowing prices

ag e. Ensuring of looser soil state during the period that is whole of

f. Probability of soil area copying by working organs of devices, during inter-row therapy, reducing of plant zone that is protective cm, technical weed destruction by 70-75% and musical organization application of pesticides that guarantees the loss of their prices by 2-3 times

g. Enhance of irrigation effectiveness

h. Diminution of nitrate content in the manufacturing

j. Loss of power cost during harvesting by 20-40%.

15. Consequently, the above conditions can be considered since the fundamental requirements for the development and success associated with the onion production that is big.

16. The onion basically is divided into red onions and onions that are large each variety calls for various eco-agricultural conditions, labour, fertilizer, climate and climatic conditions, heat, etc.

17. Shanmugasundaram, (2001) has identified the diseases that are following influence the onion cultivation. These deceases have been divided by him into two.

a. Field conditions

b. Space conditions

18. The industry diseases contains Stemphylium blight , Purple blotch, Anthracnose, Botrytis leaf blight, Downy mildew, Pink root, Smudge, Smut and several Basal rots (Shanmugasundaram, 2001).

19. The storage space conditions covers field that is common, botrytis throat rot, black colored mildew and microbial soft rot (Shanmugasundaram, 2001).

20. Meanwhile it’s been discovered that in the past that is recent onion cultivation is reducing because of numerous facets. Some facets identified by Kulatunga (2006) are presented below.

a. Not enough quality seeds

b. Not enough advice given for application of seeds

c. Inadequate loan facilities available to buy quality that is high

d. Very Long durations taken for harvesting from seeds

ag e. Not enough federal government support in providing fertilizer facilities to the onion manufacturing

f. Insufficient quality fertilizers available for the onion manufacturers

g. Not enough availability of fertilizer at outside and outlets that are private

h. Lack of counselling and advice given on how to use the fertilizers for the variety that is new

j. Not enough storage space facilities to keep the onion manufacturing.

21. Though these issues are experienced in the onion manufacturing it can be divided into two categories that are major. They are given below.

a. Not enough federal government help in giving seeds to the onion cultivators.

b. Not enough federal government help to give fertilizer to onion cultivation.

22. It’s been seen that big onion cultivation is impacted to greater extent by the lack of federal government inspiration in finding seeds that are required. Thus; not enough quality seeds, not enough counselling and advise on using seeds, not enough brand new variety of seeds, inadequate federal government financial help to get seeds, lack of assurance on harvesting duration etc are experienced under seeds (Kulatunga, 2006).

23. Kulatunga (2006) has also identified that there’s no sufficient fertilizer help to motivate the onion production that is big. In Sri Lanka it’s been discovered that the onion farmers lack federal government funding and subsidies to purchase fertilizers. Moreover, fertilizer comes at a price that is fairly high the outside outlets. In addition the efficient and harvest stimulating fertilizers aren’t available for the onion farmers. Additionally the quality that is high various variety of fertilizers will also be unavailable to increase the top onion cultivation in the Dambulla area.

24. Hence important that the onion manufacturing is increased in order to protect the onion that is big and to assure the livelihood of many Sri Lankans. Hence the literary works suggests that the measures that are following increase the onion manufacturing.

a. Involving in development and research tasks in order to increase the onion manufacturing.

b. Federal Government support that is providing find top quality seeds.

c. Federal Government has to give seeds associated with the varieties that are new.

d. Federal Government has to give seeds at subsidized prices.

ag e. Federal Government has to give counselling that is constant suggestions about maneuvering seeds.

f. Federal Government has to extend the fertilizer subsidy.

g. Supplying quality fertilizer that is high.

h. Monitoring fertilizer distribution.

j. Counselling on handling conditions.

(supply – created for this study)

26. The above figure illustrates two sets of facets that determine the decrease in the onion cultivation; the lack of seed access plus the not enough fertilizer access. This was based on Kulatunga (2006). Each set of the factors that are major sub facets. Consequently, these two are considered since the variables that are independent. The onion that is decreasing is identified as the reliant adjustable. Hence, this figure establishes links between the facets plus the onion cultivation that is decreasing. Through this study one have to know which factor(s) cause for the onion that is decreasing, one of the farmers in the Dambulla area.

Facets determining the onion cultivation

Lack of seeds access

Getting quality that is high

Likert

Q1

Circulation of seeds by the government

Likert

Q2

Provision of subsidy by the government to regularly buy seeds

Likert

Q3

Seeds giving the anticipated harvest

Likert

Q4

Purchase seeds from the national government Agricultural Department

Likert

Q5

Provision of training and counselling regarding the seeds that are new the government

Likert

Q6

I could get brand new varieties of seeds

Likert

Q7

I could get counselling that is regular advice associated with the conditions on the seeds

Likert

Q8

Not enough fertilizers access

Fertilizer subsidy through the federal government

Likert

Q9

Buy of fertilizer through the national government Agricultural Department

Likert

Q10

Buy of fertilizer through the outlets that are private a less cost

Likert

Q11

Getting quality fertilizer that is high

Likert

Q12

Getting counselling and advice for the application of fertilizers

Likert

Q13

Getting variety that is different of

Likert

Q14

Getting fertilizer that can optimize the harvest